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Evaluaciones neuropsicol?gicas pedi?tricas: preguntas frecuentes por Lindsay Whitman, Ph.D., Neuropsic?logo pedi?trico

Por October 3, 2012#!28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p0528#28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p-8-08:002828-08:00x28 13am28am-28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p8-08:002828-08:00x282013Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800018012amWednesday=3557#!28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p-08:002#February 13th, 2013#!28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p0528#/28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p-8-08:002828-08:00x28#!28Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:01:05 -0800p-08:002#Sin comentarios

What is pediatric neuropsychology La neuropsicolog?a pedi?trica es una especialidad que se enfoca en la cognici?n, el aprendizaje y el comportamiento en ni?os y adolescentes. Un neuropsic?logo pedi?trico generalmente tiene un Ph.D. en psicolog?a cl?nica y est? especialmente capacitado para comprender las formas en que el pensamiento, el aprendizaje y el comportamiento est?n asociados con el desarrollo neurol?gico, las estructuras cerebrales y los sistemas cerebrales.

A pediatric neuropsychologist uses standardized tests to measure cognitive skills such as attention, executive functioning, memory, visuospatial processing, and language. A pediatric neuropsychologist utilizes the numerical results of these objective tests in conjunction with parent/teacher reported functional difficulties, a child's behavioral presentation, and a detailed clinical history to draw conclusions, consider clinical diagnoses, and generate recommendations.

Pediatric neuropsychologists often work with a child’s doctors and/or therapists to help set goals, monitor progress, and manage expectations. They commonly consult with teachers and/or school officials to help provide necessary educational or academic accommodations. A pediatric neuropsychologist often helps families connect with the appropriate types of therapists (e.g., psychotherapists, speech/language therapists, occupational therapists) in an effort to develop a comprehensive treatment plan.

Los neuropsic?logos pedi?tricos trabajan en diferentes entornos cl?nicos. Muchos trabajan independientemente en la pr?ctica privada. Otros trabajan en un entorno m?dico o acad?mico-m?dico, como un hospital, una escuela de medicina o una cl?nica de salud especializada. A menudo, los neuropsic?logos dividen su tiempo entre el trabajo cl?nico con clientes y la investigaci?n.

What is a standardized test Una prueba estandarizada es una prueba que se administra y califica de manera consistente. Est?n dise?ados de tal manera que todas las preguntas, materiales de prueba y condiciones de prueba (por ejemplo, en una habitaci?n tranquila, en un escritorio) son constantes en todas las administraciones. Uno debe poseer credenciales profesionales espec?ficas para comprar y utilizar pruebas neuropsicol?gicas estandarizadas.

How does a neuropsychological evaluation differ from an assessment performed in school Las evaluaciones basadas en la escuela (tambi?n conocidas como evaluaciones psicoeducativas) generalmente se realizan con un objetivo en mente: determinar si un ni?o califica para programas o terapias de educaci?n especial. Las evaluaciones basadas en la escuela se centran casi exclusivamente en las habilidades de rendimiento intelectual y acad?mico. Aunque este tipo de evaluaci?n es suficiente para algunos ni?os, es dif?cil para un profesional diagnosticar responsablemente cualquier dificultad que no sea una discapacidad de aprendizaje espec?fica clara con la cantidad limitada de datos cl?nicos reunidos en este tipo de evaluaci?n.

What types of children are referred for a neuropsychological evaluation Los ni?os y adolescentes generalmente son remitidos para una evaluaci?n neuropsicol?gica por un padre, m?dico, maestro, psic?logo escolar u otro profesional debido a una o m?s de las siguientes razones:

  • Dificultad con respecto al aprendizaje y / o rendimiento acad?mico a pesar de asistencia adecuada y atenci?n y esfuerzo aparentemente buenos
  • Dificultad para prestar atenci?n, mantener un comportamiento adaptativo, socializar o mantener el control emocional
  • Una historia de dificultad neurol?gica o del desarrollo que se sabe que afecta el cerebro y / o los sistemas cerebrales (p. Ej., Epilepsia, exposici?n t?xica perinatal, un trastorno metab?lico, posible trastorno del espectro autista o diagn?stico de TDAH)
  • Sospecha de retraso en el desarrollo (lenguaje, motor, etc.) que posiblemente est? acompa?ado de otras ?reas de dificultad
  • Una lesi?n cerebral por traumatismo craneal u otro tipo de estr?s f?sico.
  • It is possible that a child may be “gifted” and proper documentation is required
  • It is necessary or desirable to document a child’s current functioning (a baseline ) or assess progress or change (a re-evaluation or follow-up evaluation)
  • What specific cognitive skills does a neuropsychological evaluation measure
    A neuropsychological evaluation aims to provide a clear picture of a child's cognitive functioning with regard to intelligence, academic skills, memory, attention, visuoperception, language, executive functioning (e.g., organization, planning, behavioral inhibition), fine motor skills, emotional functioning, and (sometimes) personality. Depending on the referral question and goal(s) of the evaluation process, some areas of cognition may be measured in more detail than others.

    What will the results of a neuropsychological evaluation tell me about my child
    Standardized test results enable a pediatric neuropsychologist to compare a child's test scores to scores of children who are of similar age. With these numbers, a neuropsychologist creates a profile of cognitive strengths and weaknesses. This information is utilized to devise recommendations regarding how to best support this child in school, at home, and perhaps with peers. A neuropsychological evaluation should help one understand the factors that may be interfering with a child’s ability to reach his or her greatest potential.

    If I decide to go forth with a neuropsychological evaluation, what should I expect
    A neuropsychological evaluation includes a parent/guardian interview regarding the child's medical, psychological, and academic history, an interview with the child, behavioral observation of the child, and standardized testing. Testing typically involves paper and a pencil, hands on activities, verbal or nonverbal items, and a laptop computer.

    During testing, parents may be asked to fill out questionnaires about their child's development and behavior. Teachers may be asked to complete similar forms. Although parents are not in the room during standardized testing, it may be appropriate that they remain present during testing with very young children. The time required to complete testing depends on the characteristics of the child or teen; adolescents may complete testing in one long day (with breaks), whereas younger children may require up to three or four shorter sessions. Dr. Whitman completes every aspect of testing herself (she does not involve psychometrists or clinical trainees).

    It is important to make sure a child has a good night s sleep the night before an evaluation. If a child has special language needs, it is important to be sure that the neuropsychologist is well aware of these. If a child wears glasses, a hearing aid, or any other device, make sure to bring the device along. If a child is on medication, do not refrain from administering it on testing day. If a child has had previous school testing, an individual educational plan (IEP), or has related medical records, bring copies of these documents to the appointment for review.

    What should I tell my child before the evaluation
    Although it is important that parents understand that pediatric neuropsychologists are trained to emotionally prepare children for the testing process once they arrive at the office, it is likely that a child will ask you questions about the process beforehand. What you should tell them about this evaluation depends on very much on the child. This said, it is usually best to keep explanations brief and simple. It is often helpful to relate explanations to a problem that your child is familiar with (such as feeling frustrated with school ). Tell your child that adults are trying to understand his or her problem in order to try and make things better. If your child seems nervous about performing “well”, remind him or her that their only job is to try their best.

    Si tiene m?s preguntas sobre la naturaleza o el proceso de una evaluaci?n neuropsicol?gica, comun?quese con el Dr. Whitman para una consulta gratuita de 30 minutos en lindsaywhitmanphd@gmail.com o 347-560-1399. El Dr. Whitman tambi?n realiza evaluaciones neuropsicol?gicas con adultos.

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