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Separazione e divorzio e il suo impatto sui bambini, della dott.ssa Veronica Brodsky PSYD, psicologa clinica e scolastica autorizzata

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Dr. Brodsky specializes in working with families and children who are going through transition. This blog is the first in a series of blogs that will address the topic of divorce and separation. The next blog will focus on Do s and Don ts for parents who are going through this transition.

Let's face it, divorce and/or separation is a difficult transition for all involved. It is a major adjustment for adults and children. Children are incredibly in-tune to what is happening around them and with their parents, even if they act like nothing is bothering them. Even if the relationship between parents was toxic and separation may be seen as a relief, separation can threaten a child's sense of safety, create confusion and fear about the future. Most children are not involved in the decision making, so when parents separate, all the changes that come with this decision can cause children to experience great distress.

Children may be faced with numerous transitions, such as having two homes, a new school, new neighborhood, new friends and maybe a new stepparent. Possible economic pressures for the parents can cause a major decline in the standard of living, and previous activities or things are no longer available. With separation, some children can experience possible isolation from relatives and friends. In one session, a child revealed his sadness and anger about not being able to see his best friend since his parents separated. When asked why, he looked surprised and sarcastically replied, because our parents don't talk and then added, it's not fair.

Prior to the actual separation, many children witness their families go through long periods of tension, distress and conflict. According to some studies, these pressures cause stress for two or three years following separation (Coley, 1998; Hetherington et al., 1998). Regardless of the reasons why people separate, it is important for children to have a safe place to express and process their feelings. Although talking to their parents about their feelings can be helpful, at times it can also be very stressful. Children are terrified of saying the wrong thing, disappointing their parents, and not getting their parents approval. The loyalty conflicts frequently created by parents who are competing for their children's allegiance can make children fearful that they will lose one of their parents in the process. (Seifert & Hoffnung, 2000). Having an objective party that is trained and knows the right way to talk to the child and his/her parents can be extremely beneficial. It can lessen feelings of anxiety and sadness and prevent future distress. Also having children join groups where other children are going through similar transition can help them feel supportive and not alone.

I compiti psicologici dei figli del divorzio
Compito 1: comprendere il divorzio. Children must first learn to accurately perceive the immediate changes that divorce brings. Later they learn to distinguish between fantasized fears of being abandoned or losing their parents and reality so that they can evaluate their parents actions and draw useful lessons for their own lives.

Compito 2: ritiro strategico. I bambini e gli adolescenti devono andare avanti con la propria vita il pi? rapidamente possibile e tornare, fisicamente ed emotivamente, ai normali compiti di crescita. Ci? rappresenta una duplice sfida per i bambini, che devono rimuovere attivamente se stessi emotivamente dall'angoscia e dai conflitti dei genitori per salvaguardare le loro identit? individuali e separare il corso della vita.

Compito 3: gestire le perdite. I bambini devono superare due profonde perdite: la perdita della famiglia intatta, insieme alla protezione simbolica e reale fornita, e la perdita della presenza di un genitore. Devono superare il potente senso di rifiuto, umiliazione, mancanza di chiarezza e impotenza che provano e sentono la colpa di s? per aver causato il divorzio.

Compito 4: affrontare la rabbia. Il compito principale per i bambini ? risolvere la loro rabbia per essere feriti dalle stesse persone da cui dipendono per protezione e amore. Devono riconoscere i loro genitori come esseri umani capaci di commettere errori e rispettarli per i loro sforzi e il loro coraggio.

Compito 5: elaborare la colpa. Young children often feel responsible for divorce, thinking their misbehavior may have caused one parent to leave. They need to separate the guilty ties that bind them too closely to a troubled parent and go on with their own lives.

Compito 6: accettare la permanenza del divorzio. At first, children's strong need to deny the divorce can help them cope with the powerful realities they face. Over time, they must accept the divorce as a permanent state of affairs.

Compito 7: cogliere l'occasione sull'amore. Achieving realistic hope regarding relationships may be the most important task for both the child and society. Children must create and sustain a realistic vision of their own capacity to love and be loved, knowing that separation and divorce are always possible. Mastering this last task which depends on successfully negotiating all of the others leads to psychological freedom from the past and to a second chance.

Adopted from Wallerstein & Blakeslee (1989, 1996)

Riferimenti:
Coley, R.L. (1998) Children s socialization experiences and functioning in single-mother household; The importance of fathers and other mend. Child Development, 69, 219-230.
Hetherington, E.M., Bridges, M., & Insabella, G.M. (1998). What matters What does not Five perspectives on the association between marital transitions and children's adjustment. American Psychologist, 53, 167-184.
Seifert, KL, Hoffnung, RJ (2000). Sviluppo di bambini e adolescenti, 5a edizione. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Wallerstein,J., & Blakeslee, S. (1996). Second chances, men, women and children a decade after divorce. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.

Dr. Veronica Brodsky, psicologo clinico infantile e scolastico con licenza, ? fondatore e direttore clinico di Interactive Discovery Consulting e servizi psicologici, PC Dr. Brodsky offre terapia individuale, terapia familiare, consultazioni con i genitori, consultazioni scolastiche, seminari e lavoro di gruppo, con bambini in et? prescolare agli adulti. Usa un approccio integrativo, che combina terapia comportamentale psicodinamica, cognitiva, biofeedback e terapia esistenziale. I suoi interessi clinici includono il lavoro con bambini e adulti che hanno a che fare con diverse transizioni di vita aiutandoli a far fronte agli stress associati a questi eventi. Svolge anche valutazioni neuropsicologiche e psicoeducazionali.

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