Speech-language pathologists (or speech and language therapists, speech therapists, or simply, SLPs) prevent, assess, diagnose, and treat speech, language, cognitive-communication, social communication, voice, and swallowing disorders. Working with individuals of all ages–from babies to adults–SLPs conduct therapy sessions on a one-on-one basis and provide information for families, support groups, and the general public.

In many cases, SLPs work with other healthcare professionals to provide referrals and assessments. Speech-language pathologists treat a wide range of communication delays and disorders. These include:

Speech & Language & Feeding Evaluations, Brooklyn Letters

  • Speech Disorders – These can occur when an individual has difficulty producing speech sounds and putting them together to form intelligible words. Speech disorders include articulation or phonological disorders, apraxia of speech, and dysarthria.
  • Idioma – Difficulties in understanding what was heard or read (receptive language) or using words to share thoughts and feelings (expressive language) may point to a language disorder. This can manifest in either spoken or written expression and may involve form (phonology, morphology, and syntax), content (semantics), and use (pragmatics) of language.
  • Voice or Resonance – Voice or resonance disorders refer to problems in how one’s voice sounds. One may sound hoarse, lose voice easily, talk through the nose or too loudly, or be unable to make sounds.
  • Social Communication – This refers to the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication. This includes how one communicates socially, how well one follows conversation rules and story-telling (aspect of expressive language called narratives), tells jokes, and how one speaks with different people in varied situations.
  • Cognitive-Communication – Someone with a cognitive-communication disorder may exhibit problems with organization, memory, attention, problem-solving, and other thinking skills. This can be a result of traumatic brain injury, a stroke, dementia, and may also be congenital.
  • Swallowing Disorders – Also known as dysphagia, swallowing disorders refer to difficulties in chewing, sucking, and swallowing food and liquid as a result of illness, surgery, stroke, or injury.
  • Literacy – Individuals with speech and language disorders may also experience difficulties with pre-literacy and literacy skills (phonological awareness, decoding, spelling, reading comprehension, and writing).

Aside from the disorders mentioned above, SLPs may also:

  • Provide aural rehabilitation for those who are deaf or hard of hearing.
  • Work with individuals with severe expressive or comprehension disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder and progressive neurological disorders) and provide augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems.
  • Help individuals enhance their communication skills (such as modifying one’s accent) to express themselves more effectively.

Tenga en cuenta que cumplimos con los est?ndares HIPPA (privacidad de la informaci?n de salud), y toda la informaci?n confidencial no se puede compartir con nadie sin su consentimiento por escrito. Tambi?n almacenamos toda la informaci?n confidencial electr?nica en nuestro servidor de correo electr?nico cifrado compatible con HIPPA.

Speech & Language & Feeding Evaluations, Brooklyn Letters

Speech & Language & Feeding Evaluations, Brooklyn Letters
Patolog?a del habla y Lenguaje

If you are seeking speech, language, and feeding services, you will need to work with one of our licensed speech-language therapists/pathologists: New York State requires that you work with a licensed therapist skilled in these areas if you or your child needs help with enunciation, expressive (oral) language, receptive (auditory) comprehension, social pragmatic skills, feeding, fluency (stuttering), etc. If the individual does not need help with their oral expressive and receptive language skills or oral expressive language skills, he or she can work with one of our literacy specialists (this is different than working with a licensed therapist) if there are literacy concerns. However, some students have what is called a language disorder (expressive and/or receptive language difficulties) and these students need therapeutic literacy intervention performed by our language therapists. This might be eligible for out-of-network reimbursement. If the literacy intervention is considered language therapy, we will need the right ICD-10 code(s) to justify a language therapy approach to your child's literacy intervention. ICD-10 codes which indicate language therapy include language disorder, expressive/receptive language disorder, phonological disorder, autism spectrum, social pragmatic communication disorder, other developmental disorders of speech and language, developmental disorder of speech and language, and sometimes diagnosis such as a specific learning disorder, a specific reading disorder, or a specific impairment in written expression.

In order to start therapeutic services by our speech-language therapists/pathologists, we need written justification from NY licensed therapists or medical doctors regardless of their affiliation with Brooklyn Letters. This documentation typically includes ICD-10 code(s). We will also need current goals. These goals can come from recent reports or from current professionals working with your child. If you do not have any of these codes, we can help!

Tutor?a de alfabetizaci?n

Para la tutor?a de alfabetizaci?n de nuestros maestros de alfabetizaci?n, un servicio no terap?utico, necesitamos objetivos actualizados. Tutor?a de alfabetizaci?n realizada por nuestros especialistas en alfabetizaci?n no es elegible para el reembolso del seguro.

If the literacy intervention cannot be justified by an ICD-10 code (see above), the literacy intervention is considered educational and can be performed by our literacy teachers. New York State believes the ICD-10 code for dyslexia is educational (learning) and not as a Communicative Disorder, e.g. Language Disorder. One day New York State will update their position on dyslexia. Please note that most neuropsychological evaluations do not include decoding and encoding (spelling goals); they mention the need for decoding and encoding intervention. If literacy goals are not included in the neuropsychological evaluation, our first session(s) will include creating these goals. Also, many schools use their methods or commercialized products for creating literacy goals. Unfortunately, some of these tools are not up-to-date with current scientific standards (it's Corporate America ). Fortunately, we use up-to-date assessment tools to reliably identify where your child needs help. Overall, you are in good hands with us, and we will guide you along the way!

Si tiene evaluaciones / evaluaciones y objetivos actualizados, lo m?s probable es que pueda saltarse la lectura del resto de esta p?gina.

Si no est? interesado en nuestros servicios de intervenci?n pero solo necesita una evaluaci?n / evaluaci?n / consulta, ?tambi?n ofrecemos servicios de evaluaci?n!

Si vives en la ciudad de Nueva York, Long Island y Westchester, ?estamos aqu? para ayudarte! ?Trabajamos con todas las edades, incluidos beb?s, adultos y todos los dem?s!

Tenga en cuenta que nosotros lata alquilar espacio en toda la ciudad de Nueva York para acomodar evaluaciones y valoraciones ya que no somos una empresa f?sica.

Consultas, evaluaciones y evaluaciones:
EVALUACIONES Y EVALUACIONES DE NIVEL 1 (hogar, escuela, ingl?s, multiling?e) realizadas por terapeutas / terapeutas del habla y lenguaje con licencia

Las evaluaciones incluyen al menos una visita en el hogar o en la escuela de una hora donde idealmente nos reunimos con usted y su hijo, revisamos informes anteriores, pruebas, etc., y dentro de diez d?as h?biles, un informe de 1.5 a 3 p?ginas con impresiones profesionales , se producen recomendaciones y objetivos (si se recomiendan los servicios). Este informe puede presentarse a escuelas privadas y profesionales fuera de Brooklyn Letters. No se puede usar para IEP (ver TIER2). Ayuda a establecer la necesidad de una articulaci?n significativa pero leve y una terapia del lenguaje expresiva y de actualizar las metas actuales de la terapia.

Articulaci?n / Enunciaci?n / Sonidos del habla (mayores de 3 a?os solo si el individuo presenta dificultades con algunos sonidos del habla apropiados para su edad): $175-$250

Lenguaje expresivo levemente retrasado (beb?s-47 meses): $200-$300. Los ni?os de tres a?os con retrasos en el lenguaje expresivo pueden calificar para una evaluaci?n TIER2, dependiendo de varios factores que ser?n discutidos por uno de nuestros pat?logos del habla por tel?fono (gratis).

Articulaci?n y preocupaciones expresivas del lenguaje: (una visita, beb?s-47 meses) $300-$450. Los ni?os de tres a?os con retrasos moderados a severos en el lenguaje expresivo probablemente requerir?n una evaluaci?n TIER2, dependiendo de varios factores que debaten uno de nuestros pat?logos del habla por tel?fono (gratis).

Evaluaci?n de habilidades sociales (Ni?os de 18 a 47 meses de edad): $150-$200 We use a standardized empirically validated parent-report questionnaire to help assess pragmatic language development in 18- to 47-month-old children. This assessment helps identify children with delays in pragmatic language development (i.e. the use of language in a broad variety of everyday settings and in interaction with other people) compared to children of the same sex and age in months; to identify children whose expressive language skills should be further evaluated with a comprehensive speech and language assessment. We mail you the questionnaire, you fill it out, mail it back to us and we score it, provide you with the results, and schedule a 30-minute phone consultation.

Evaluaciones biling?es / multiling?es TIER1 Y TIER2 En el hogar y en la oficina:

Bilingual/multilingual evaluations are billed at a higher rate than monolingual English evaluations and assessments. Bilingual/multilingual in-home and at-school evaluations/assessments are usually marked up an additional 30 to 50% due to the additional work required to assess more than one language. Office-based bilingual/multilingual evaluations and assessments are an additional cost due to the expenses of renting space.


Podemos proporcionar un c?digo ICD-10 para fines de seguro con una evaluaci?n TIER1 si el ni?o tiene dificultades de articulaci?n que no son normales para su edad o si tiene un retraso o trastorno significativo del lenguaje expresivo. Somos proveedores fuera de la red y no aceptamos pagos de terceros, pero es posible que tenga derecho a un reembolso seg?n las disposiciones de su p?liza de seguro fuera de la red.

Tenga en cuenta que se recomienda una evaluaci?n TIER2 para las siguientes circunstancias:

Cuando hay problemas de alimentaci?n (cualquier edad).

Cuando hay problemas de fluidez / tartamudeo (cualquier edad).

Cuando existen retrasos significativos en el lenguaje y la comunicaci?n tempranos moderados a severos (0-36 meses).

Si los problemas de articulaci?n involucran m?s de unos pocos errores de sonido del habla apropiados para la edad (mayores de 3 a?os).

Si su hijo tiene 3 a?os y tiene retrasos significativos en el lenguaje expresivo de moderado a severo.

Si sus inquietudes involucran lenguaje receptivo o alfabetizaci?n (cualquier edad).

Si su hijo tiene m?s de cuatro a?os y ha retrasado el desarrollo del lenguaje.

Consulta telef?nica gratuita

Si est? interesado en una evaluaci?n o evaluaci?n privada, hablar? por tel?fono con un pat?logo del habla y lenguaje con licencia para ayudarlo a determinar mejor si su hijo debe ser considerado para una evaluaci?n / evaluaci?n TIER1 o TIER2.

TIER 1 EVALUATIONS & ASSESSMENTS (Home, School) Performed by Literacy Specialists/Teachers

Evaluaciones de decodificaci?n y ortograf

$200-$300 Decodificaci?n y ortograf?a (codificaci?n)

Estos incluyen al menos una visita en el hogar de una hora donde nos reunimos con usted y su hijo, una revisi?n de informes anteriores, pruebas, etc., y dentro de diez d?as h?biles un informe de 1.5 a 3 p?ginas con impresiones profesionales, recomendaciones, y objetivos (si se recomiendan los servicios). Estas evaluaciones no son de naturaleza diagn?stica y son mejores para fines de tutor?a para crear objetivos de decodificaci?n y ortograf?a. Los puntajes bajos en las pruebas indicar?n que los padres deben hacer un seguimiento con un psic?logo para pruebas adicionales (?podemos recomendarlos a usted!).

Nuestros maestros de alfabetizaci?n no pueden producir c?digos ICD-10 ya que no son terapeutas con licencia.

EVALUACIONES Y EVALUACIONES DE NIVEL 2 (Hogar, escuela, ingl?s, multiling?e) Realizadas por terapeutas / terapeutas del habla y lenguaje con licencia.

$250-$1000 * Las evaluaciones TIER2 son más completas que las evaluaciones TIER1 e incluyen evaluaciones de alfabetización realizadas por terapeutas del lenguaje con licencia. Las evaluaciones TIER2 son perfectas para evaluaciones privadas de CPSE y CSE. Se recomienda una evaluación TIER2 cuando un niño tiene más de unos pocos errores de sonido del habla que no son apropiados para su edad, y existen preocupaciones importantes relacionadas con la comprensión y el uso del lenguaje oral y escrito, particularmente cuando el niño tiene 48 meses o más. .

  • $300-$500 para habilidades de comunicaci?n y lenguaje tempranas a severas (0-36 meses)
  • $300-$500 para sonidos de articulaci?n / enunciaci?n / habla (3 a?os en adelante) cuando el individuo tiene dificultades con m?s de unos pocos sonidos apropiados para su edad
  • $700-$1000 Evaluaci?n de apraxia realizada por el Dr. Melissa (ver m?s abajo para m?s informaci?n)
  • $300-$500 para fluidez / tartamudeo (2 a?os en adelante)
  • $250-$400 para alimentaci?n (cualquier edad)
  • $300-$500 para habilidades de alfabetizaci?n temprana (4-6 a?os en adelante)
  • $300-$600 para Alfabetización (Lenguaje escrito - Lectura y escritura)
  • $300-400 para lenguaje expresivo (a partir de 3 a?os)
  • $400-$800 for Expressive and Receptive Language (3 years and up) for students who need their receptive language evaluated and have significant expressive language delays.
  • $400-$500 para lenguaje expresivo y articulaci?n (3 a?os en adelante)
  • $500-$800 para lenguaje expresivo y receptivo, articulaci?n (a partir de 3 a?os)
  • $600-$1000 for Expressive and Receptive Language, Literacy, and Articulation (4 years and up)

Todas nuestras evaluaciones TIER 2 ocurren durante una visita en un espacio tranquilo de su hogar. Si est? interesado en un espacio de oficina, consulte a continuaci?n. Estas visitas duran de 1 a 3 horas y su hijo tendr? descansos. Ocasionalmente, un ni?o no puede completar la prueba con la cantidad de tiempo adecuada permitida para las evaluaciones. Nos reservamos el derecho de cobrar una tarifa adicional de $150 para programar una cita de seguimiento para completar la prueba cuando surjan estas circunstancias.TIER2 Evaluations include a 2 to 10-page report (higher costing evaluations result in extended reports and visa versa), including professional impressions, recommendations, and goals. Please allow us up to 10 business days to produce the report. If you need the report in less than ten days, it can be expedited for a fee of $100-$200 depending on how quickly you need the turnaround. For higher costing evaluations ($600 and up), we might require additional time to complete the report (10-15 business days). Results are discussed over the phone or in-person if the data is scored at the time of the assessment. If a parent requests a follow-up meeting to discuss the results in person, this will be billed at the professional’s hourly rate.

Podemos recomendar e iniciar la intervenci?n antes de que finalice el informe porque sabremos directamente despu?s o poco despu?s de la evaluaci?n si la intervenci?n est? justificada y podremos establecer objetivos. Estas dos piezas esenciales se pueden resolver antes de que se le env?e el informe. Con su permiso, podemos compartir esta informaci?n con un tercero.

Los c?digos ICD-10 se proporcionan si el individuo tiene un retraso significativo o un trastorno. Producimos c?digos ICD-10 para trastornos del habla y lenguaje. Para un c?digo ICD-10 relacionado con la alfabetizaci?n o un trastorno del aprendizaje, por ejemplo, dislexia, le recomendamos que realice un seguimiento con pruebas adicionales realizadas por un neuropsic?logo con licencia del estado de Nueva York. ?Tenemos muchas recomendaciones geniales!

Fluency/Stuttering Evaluations (see below for more information)

First, parents are asked to complete a written case history form. A stuttering assessment also involves parent interview and child observation, both of which can be conducted through video-conferencing software. The speech therapist will determine the following:

  • When did the stuttering begin?

  • Are there situations in which your child stutters more? Less?

  • Does stuttering run in your family?

  • Does your child exhibit any negative reactions toward his or her stuttering?

  • Does your child display any physical tension or secondary behaviors (e.g., eye blinking, facial grimacing, etc.) when they stutter?

  • Are there any other speech or language concerns?

  • Is your child is experiencing negative reactions from peers or family members?

  • Is your child is having difficulty communicating his or her message in an efficient, effective manner?

You may also be asked more specific questions about your child interests and hobbies: What does your child like to do? What is she or he good at? The evaluator will be interested in the whole child, and not just the stuttering.

The speech therapist will try to learn your child’s feelings and attitudes about his stuttering, and the impact that it has on him in different environments (at school, at home etc.). If speech therapy is warranted, a plan will be laid out for parent education and counseling. If speech therapy is not warranted, the family is educated about how to monitor the child’s speech to determine if and when the child should be reevaluated.

* Evaluaciones basadas en la oficina: tenga en cuenta que podemos alquilar espacio en toda la ciudad de Nueva York por una tarifa adicional. Tenga en cuenta que las evaluaciones basadas en la oficina se facturan a tarifas m?s altas, por ejemplo, $20-40 m?s por hora para cubrir nuestros gastos de alquiler.

*Bilingual/Multilingual Assessments: Bilingual/Multilingual evaluations/assessments are usually marked up an additional 30 to 50% due to the additional work required to assess more than one language.

Acerca de las evaluaciones de la apraxia del habla infantil

($700-$1000 para Manhattan). * Tarifas adicionales para ?reas fuera de Manhattan

?Qu? es la apraxia del habla infantil?

La apraxia del habla infantil (CSA) es un trastorno del habla pedi?trico. A diferencia de las dificultades con la articulaci?n (enunciaci?n), un ni?o con apraxia del habla infantil no puede llevar los movimientos de la boca al lugar correcto. en el momento adecuado. Esto dar? como resultado no solo errores en el habla, sino tambi?n interrupciones en el flujo del habla.

?Qui?n podr?a tener apraxia del habla infantil?

La apraxia del habla infantil puede ocurrir por s? sola o en combinaci?n con otros trastornos del habla y el lenguaje. A menudo, los ni?os con apraxia del habla infantil no han progresado con la terapia del habla tradicional. Algunos ni?os con apraxia del habla infantil cometen errores inconsistentes al repetir la misma palabra. A veces, los ni?os con apraxia del habla infantil pueden hablar de una manera que suena lenta o entrecortada.

¿Cómo se diagnostica la apraxia del habla infantil?

Childhood Apraxia of Speech is a misunderstood and often misdiagnosed speech disorder. Childhood Apraxia of Speech is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can appear very similar to speech-language delays and other speech-language disorders, especially when a child is very young or has a limited vocabulary. There is no gold standard test for Childhood Apraxia of Speech so it must be diagnosed by careful and systematic exclusion of other highly similar speech disorders. Although there is no single test for Childhood Apraxia of Speech, the scientific literature has identified tasks that can differentially diagnose children with high accuracy. Accurate diagnosis depends on a skilled and experienced practitioner to understand and use these science-based methods. Methods for differential diagnosis of CAS from other pediatric speech sound disorders vary by the age and communication abilities of each child. Evaluations of CAS must include an evaluation of the motor speech system, examining in detail both the types and amount of sounds and syllable shapes a child has, in addition to the underlying movement patterns and overall quality of the rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech.

About our Online Remote Early Childhood Speech-Language Evaluations

Online assessments of speech, language, and cognitive-communication abilities of children birth to 5 years of age can be administered by a qualified speech-language pathologist. Telehealth speech and language assessments include standardized tests that assess a child’s receptive, expressive, and social-emotional language, articulation, and phonological skills using an iPad or computer. Family involvement is essential for effective speech and language assessments and therapy. Remote assessments provide a unique opportunity for parents to be directly involved in the process as facilitators, as well as reporters. An informed clinical opinion is used to obtain functional information by detailed observation of the child’s natural environment with the people with whom he or she is most comfortable. The parent becomes the communication partner and facilitates skills such as direction following, identifying, labeling, and eliciting overall language. This type of assessment is proven to reduce anxiety and elicit behaviors that provide a clear picture of the child’s true abilities.

About our Remote Online Feeding Evaluations

Remote feeding evaluations will identify oral-motor dysfunctions related to feeding/chewing, taste/texture transition difficulties, and abnormal mealtime behaviors negatively impacting your child. There may be various reasons for feeding difficulties which are not limited to but include sensory processing deficits that may be associated with diagnoses such as Sensory Processing Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, chewing delays, behavioral issues, dysphagia, Failure to Thrive/lack adequate weight gain, inability to manipulate food (food pocketing) or liquid, food selectivity/limited variety, transition from tube feedings to feeding by mouth, and vomiting (reflux). An evaluation will also determine picky eaters versus problem eaters using the Sequential Oral Sensory Approach to feeding. If your child is a picky eater or problem feeder they will require support to learn how to include more variety in their diets. Further, parents will be taught various strategies based on their child’s difficulties during feeding and/or drinking from a cup/bottle. If your child is presenting with difficulties manipulating food such as but not limited to food pocketing or difficulty chewing, there will be strategies and tools given to train them.

Remote feeding evaluations provide a great way to directly involve parents in the process. Observing how a parent interacts and feeds their child provides invaluable insight regarding the social-emotional aspect of feeding. Remote feeding evaluations, as with in-person feeding evaluations, begin with educating the parents on the process by explaining each step of the evaluation using descriptions or, in some cases videos, so the parent is prepared to effectively participate. It will comprise an initial detailed parental history of the child’s medical/behavioral background information, feeding history, meal experiences, and an observation of your child eating a “preferred meal” to observe their oral mechanisms and behaviors. Prior to the evaluation, parents will understand what foods will be presented and in what manner. Parents will actively facilitate the presentation of these foods, thereby maintaining the natural feeding environment for the child. The evaluator will closely observe each aspect of the feeding process. Since parents have been informed of the process, they are able to take cues from the clinician to manipulate the situation as necessary. During the assessment, your child will be asked to consume preferred foods/liquids as well as more challenging items. During a remote evaluation, parents are to be hands-on and provide intervention following the directives of the clinician. Using this information, our feeding therapists can then make a clinical judgment to determine the cause of the feeding difficulties and formulate strategies to target muscular coordination, sensory processes, and negative social experiences associated with food and eating. The evaluation will determine which skills are intact and functional in comparison to developmental norms and which are abnormal inhibiting feeding/swallowing skills.

Dependent on your child’s underlying issues, our team will devise a plan and recommendations to address strategies to assist in eating age-appropriate meals.

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